Curriculum outline: Salem County History, Mapping Our Heritage

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Unit One

From the beginning settlers to the creation of a new country – for use in grades 4 through 6.

The players and places
Native American settlers Lenape (Delaware) & Nanticoke

The real questions
Who were they? How did they live? Where are they now?

Profiles
Part of the Algonquin nation. Farming, fishing and hunting. Salem County place names taken from Indian words.

What they did
Tribal nations were models for representative democracy. Growing crops, gathering wild herbs and fruit, nets to fish and hunting & trapping for meat and skins. Words in use today come from Algonquin words like toboggan, hickory, chipmunk and caucus. Place names like Alloway.

Learning more
Remnants of the tribe remain and hold an annual powwow at the fairgrounds. Additional information Thomas Penn and the Walking Purchase and the Indian Removal Act.


The players and places
Swedes & Finns short history

The real questions
Who were they? How did they interact with the Indians?

Profiles
Smaller colonies from Sweden that settled on the Delaware River. Finland was a province of Sweden. Most of the Swedish colonists were Finns. They lived peacefully with the Indians. Place names the Swedes left behind.

What they did
Others who were creating colonies further north were Dutch, English and French. Sharing: Swedish Colonists taught the Indians how to build log cabins and make splint baskets and in return the Indians taught them how to grow corn and net fish. Many of the cultural traits the Swedes and natives shared were woven into the fabric of American history.

Learning more
A replica of a Swedish cabin is open on Market Street in Salem. A Swedish farm house & museum in Pennsville. A cabin at Hancock’s Bridge shows what life was like.


The players and places
The Dutch

The real questions
Who were they?

Profiles
Established colonies in New York but soon had confrontations with the English.

What they did
They took over the Swedish colony in 1655 also building forts but were defeated by the English in 1664.

Learning more
Web search for history of New Amsterdam.


The players and places
The English.

The real questions

Who were they? What was The Provence of West Jersey?

Profiles
King George’s gift to his brother ignores any other claims and divides up what would become New Jersey.

What they did
In 1673 sailed from England, arriving on the shore of Salem County in June 1675. A treaty with the Indians gives him “rights to the soil” in what is now Salem and Cumberland Counties.

Learning more
Sailing ships long and hazardous journey. Not until 1737 was there a way to compute longitude. How did that affect sea travel?


The players and places
Fenwick’s Colony

The real questions
What made up the colony? What was unique about the area?

Profiles
Establishment of the Town of New Salem. The use of the waterways for transporting people and crops.

What they did
In 1676 a survey was commissioned to allow for home sites, towns and roadways. . a county map was begun.

Learning more
The use of animal paths and waterways to get around the territory.


The players and places
The colony takes shape.

The real questions
Who owned the land? How was it divided? What’s in a name? How did people earn money?

Profiles
The disputes over who owned the land or had the right to grant or sell it to settlers. The drawing of boundary lines for counties and towns.

What they did
Markets, fairs, trades.

Learning more
Natives, Swedes, Finns and English… the mapping of cities, townships, home sites, farms and waterways. A list of name origins.

Learning more
The recording of deeds and the development of parcels and home sites for sale. The making of surveys.


The players and places
The Blessings of so much water. The Development of a port.

The real questions
What were the advantages of the waterways and how were they used?

Profiles
Water as roads. Fishing and trapping, as power, feeding crops, animals and people. Boats to navigate them.

What they did
Mills, boats and marsh grazing. Hunting and fishing to feed the families and for sale.

Learning more
The making of beer and cider. Early boats and ships. Transportation.


 

The players and places
The Making of government filling the need for order and safety. Local and regional.

The real questions
What kind of government was necessary? Why does government need taxes?

Profiles
Laws, enforcement and courts. Coming together as a community for the protection of all. Covering the costs.

What they did
Freeholders, sheriff, judges, fire brigades, militia and more.

Learning more
Identifying livestock. The strength of volunteers. Crime and punishment samples of same.


 

The players and places
The place for faith

The real questions
How did the settlers worship and where? Did they always get along?

Profiles
The settlers brought their faith with them, coming together to build churches and meeting houses.

What they did
Earliest groups. Lutheran, Episcopal, Quaker, Baptist, AME.

Learning more
Churches that are still here. The right not to fight for the Quakers.


 

The players and places
A disagreement with a King and a rebellion begins.

The real questions
What was the tea party? Was the revolution fought in Salem County? Why were farmers encouraged to raise more sheep?

Profiles
Salem county sends aid to Boston and supplies to the rebel troops. Not everyone in the county wanted a new country friends and family divided the Whigs and the Tories. Dependence of wool from England.

What they did
The colonies respond to the suffering in Boston. The colonies declare independence and the citizens of Salem County are divided. Franklin’s father and son divided by loyalties.

Learning more
Taxation without representation.


The players and places
The fighting in Salem County

The real questions
Were there battles fought in the county? Who was involved and what was the outcome?

Profiles
The British came by water and land, determined to seize what they needed and destroy the rest.

What they did
The leaders on both sides and how and where they fought. What was the militia and how it worked.

Learning more
Hancock’s bridge and the battle of Quinton. Feeding the troops. Volunteers hold the line.


The players and places
Being part of new country

The real questions
What changes did the revolution bring? How does the government compare to today?

Profiles
From a declaration of independence to a constitution, county and municipal government, but not all issues were settled.

What they did
The tasks of government and who represented south Jersey. The priority of order. The writers set up a procedure to amend the constitution.

Learning more
Questions of race and gender. Who were citizens, could own land and who could vote. Meetings in Philadelphia.


The players and places
Salem County continues to grow.

The real questions
What things helped Salem County grow and become more prosperous?

Profiles
Building an infrastructure, roads bridges and dikes. New markets and new products. New technology

What they did
Learning to control the water. The power of steam. New and faster ways to get products to market.

Learning more
On land nothing moved faster than a horse, on the water no faster than wind or oars.


The players and places
Not everything was rosy, the hazards of colonial life. Using up the land.

The real questions
What were the dangers? What did the people do? What happens when you run out of resources?

Profiles
Mother nature and farming. Disease and medicine. Land that no longer will grow a crop. Moving west to establish Salem Cities across the country.

What they did
The precarious life of a farmer. Illness spreads. A look at cemeteries for history. Robert G. Johnson and the farm loan fund. The finding of marl.

Learning more
Today farming is hard work and risky. Looking at the harvesting of crops and health hazards in the county.


The players and places
Change makers

The real questions
Who and what affected the character of Salem County? What impact does that have for today?

Profiles
Persons of influence and their creativity.

What they did
The effects of geography, resources and climate.

Learning more
Look at the agricultural community of today – what crops are still growing?

 

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Unit Two

The rights of all people in society and the impact of technology in a growing county and country – for use in grades 6 through 8.

The players and places
A look back at the building of a county and its part in creating a new county. An over view from the first unit.

The real questions
What were the most important happenings and how did they shape the county?

Who they were
The buying and claiming of the land and how it came to be used. The need to keep order. The Revolution. The use of new technology.

What they did
The division of the land. The use and control of the waterways and building of roads. Established government to keep order and do those things individuals couldn’t do themselves.

Learning more
Identifying things that still work the same way.  Seeing how volunteers still make a difference.


The players and places
New technology changes the world and with it Salem County.

The real questions
What happened between 1830 and 1850 that impacted the world more than the effects of today’s technological changes?

Who they were
The power of steam to move things. Communication and the telegram. The ability to control the water with damns and dikes. Trains and steam boats come to Salem County.

What they did
Steam boats and trains get people and things from one place to another faster and cheaper. Messages across a wire, dots and dashes like getting your first phone.

Learning more
History of the steam engine and the telegraph. Ways to control the flow of water.


The players and places
New prosperity comes in the form of manufacturing, merchants and services. New diversity as people comes to the county.

The real questions
How did a group of manufactures, merchants and services change the county? Who and where were they?

Who they were
The need for glass for jars, windows and more. Supplies needed for the farms, fishing fleets, hunters and trappers as well as household goods. Tanning, transportation, processing meat, fish, crops, and other services grew. Brick for houses and skills to build them. Mills and iron works populate the county.

What they did
Much of the forested area was cut to supply wood for the furnaces and the steam engines. Sand and clay for glass and pottery. Furniture made in Salem County. With prosperity comes the desire to own things..what they bought.

Learning more
What fuels the glass furnace today? Why are fewer things made in America? What is still manufactured in Salem County?


The players and places
The abundance of the farms and the life of a Salem County farm family.

The real questions
What did they grow? How much is still around? What role did each member of the family play the prosperity of the family? How could you preserve the food you raised?

Who they were
The farmers raised animals and the feed they fed them. The farm family also needed to eat and raised fruit, vegetables and grains. As farmers they raised more than enough for themselves they took the rest to market.

What they did
Working a farm today is hard work but doing it without tractors and other machines required a lot of labor and laborers and was even more dependent on the weather and land conditions. The growing role of canneries.

Learning more
Farmland Preservation. Crops still grown in the county. The Tomato, the potato and the pickle. The making of beer and spirits.


The players and places
Beyond the field and barn: trappers, loggers, watermen, trades and manufacturing.

The real questions
How else did farmers and others make a living from the land and water?

Who they were
Salem County had an abundance of wild life, some of it is still here and some are gone forever. Watermen and their boats.

What they did
Locals hunted geese and pheasant, they trapped muskrat and fox for the pelts. They fished the creeks, rivers and bay for fish, turtles, crab, oysters and clams.

Learning more
Immigrants from Russia, Italy, Germany and beyond add to the community.


The players and places
The question of slavery and the effort to compromise becomes even more difficult as new states and territories are added.

The real questions
When and why were African slaves brought to America? Who else besides slaves were sent to the colonies as labor? Were there slaves in Salem County? Does being a free state mean that there are no slaves?

Who they were
The need for cheap labor. Indians die quickly from the white man’s diseases prove unable to fill the need. Working the farms of Salem County indentured labor instead of prison and African slaves.

What they did
Slave traders and people as property. Slaves and free blacks in Salem County a portrait of who they were. Convicts sent to the new world.

Learning more
The remarkable stories of free blacks and their contribution to Salem County.


 

The players and places
The railroad that didn’t have trains. The Steps to freedom run through the County.

The real questions
What was the underground railroad and how did Salem County participate? What was the fugitive slave act?

Who they were
Closeness to slave states. Again with the help of water. Moving north to freedom. Bounty hunters roam the county.

What they did
The involvement of the Quakers and free blacks. Heroes in the effort.

Learning more
Following the steps 7 sites in Salem County.


The players and places
Compromise fails and a country divided, goes to war.

The real questions
How did people in Salem County participate in the war? What effect did the war have on the county? Costs of war?

Who they were
The party of Lincoln strong in the county. An army is raised that includes men from the county.

What they did
Again the question of the Quakers and war. A Quaker woman goes to war to help. Prisoners of war on the Delaware.

Learning more
Pea Patch Island and Finns Point. Special heroes.


The players and places
Salem County moves toward a new century. Changes for better or worse. Prosperities impact on the environment.

The real questions
How did the new technologies change Salem County? What resources were used to keep the prosperity moving? What is the impact on today’s Salem County?

Who they were
Moving from homemade or local craftsmen to manufactured goods. The need for wood and sand to make glass. Better boats, nets and other equipment meant bring in more fish, oysters and crabs.

What they did
The depleting of resources including the stripping of wooded areas and the over fishing and the dredging of oysters has in some areas has caused total depletion. Sturgeon and caviar as an industry on the Delaware River.

Learning more
The markets for Salem County products. Farming still strong. Glass makers, canneries and the purchase of land by DuPont.


 

The players and places
The beginnings of a new rebellion. The rights of women, blacks and children.

The real questions
Who could vote or hold property? Who went to school? Who could inherit? Who could work?

Who they were
The meaning of Freeholder. The local schools and the beginnings of public support.

What they did
The role of the Quaker’s in education. The beginnings of woman’s suffrage.

Learning more
A right given and taken away – the first New Jersey constitution.


The players and places
Change makers

The real questions
Who and what affected the character of Salem County?

Who they were
Persons of influence and creativity. Successes and failures.

What they did
Geography still made a difference.

Learning more
Looking at people and machines.

 

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